The Verb Recognize a verb when you see one. Verbs are a necessary component of all sentences. Verbs have two important functions: Some verbs put stalled subjects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the subjects in meaningful ways.
Persian Some of these languages started to distinguish gender in the third person pronoun due to influence from European languages. In the spoken language it still sounds awkward and rather unnatural, as it literally translates to "that female".
T—V distinction Many languages have different pronouns, particularly in the second person, depending on the degree of formality or familiarity. It is common for different pronouns to be used when addressing friends, family, children and animals than when addressing superiors and adults with whom the speaker is less familiar.
Examples of such languages include French, where the singular tu is used only for familiars, the plural vous being used as a singular in other cases Russian follows a similar pattern ; German, where the third-person plural sie capitalized as Sie is used as both singular and plural in the second person in non-familiar uses; and Polish, where the noun pan "gentleman" and its feminine and plural equivalents are used as polite second-person pronouns.
For more details, see T—V distinction.
Some languages, such as Japanese and Koreanhave pronouns that reflect deep-seated societal categories. In these languages there is a small set of nouns that refer to the discourse participants, but these referential nouns are not usually used, with proper nouns, deictics, and titles being used instead and once the topic is understood, usually no explicit reference is made at all.
A speaker chooses which word to use depending on the rank, job, age, gender, etc. For instance, in formal situations, adults usually refer to themselves as watashi or the even more polite watakushi, while young men may use the student-like boku and police officers may use honkan "this officer".
In informal situations, women may use the colloquial atashi, and men may use the rougher ore. Case[ edit ] Pronouns also often take different forms based on their syntactic function, and in particular on their grammatical case.
English distinguishes the nominative form I, you, he, she, it, we, theyused principally as the subject of a verb, from the oblique form me, you, him, her, it, us, themused principally as the object of a verb or preposition. Languages whose nouns inflect for case often inflect their pronouns according to the same case system; for example, German personal pronouns have distinct nominative, genitive, dative and accusative forms ich, meiner, mir, mich; etc.
Pronouns often retain more case distinctions than nouns — this is true of both German and English, and also of the Romance languageswhich with the exception of Romanian have lost the Latin grammatical case for nouns, but preserve certain distinctions in the personal pronouns.
Other syntactic types of pronouns which may adopt distinct forms are disjunctive pronounsused in isolation and in certain distinct positions such as after a conjunction like andand prepositional pronounsused as the complement of a preposition.
Strong and weak forms[ edit ] Some languages have strong and weak forms of personal pronouns, the former being used in positions with greater stress.
Some authors further distinguish weak pronouns from clitic pronouns, which are phonetically less independent. Reflexive and possessive forms[ edit ] Languages may also have reflexive pronouns and sometimes reciprocal pronouns closely linked to the personal pronouns.
English has the reflexive forms myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves there is also oneself, from the indefinite pronoun one.
These are used mainly to replace the oblique form when referring to the same entity as the subject of the clause; they are also used as intensive pronoun as in I did it myself. Personal pronouns are also often associated with possessive forms.
English has two sets of such forms: In informal usage both types of words may be called "possessive pronouns", even though the former kind do not function in place of nouns, but qualify a noun, and thus do not themselves function grammatically as pronouns. Some languages, such as the Slavic languagesalso have reflexive possessives meaning "my own", "his own", etc.
These can be used to make a distinction from ordinary third-person possessives. For example, in Slovene: Eva je dala Maji svojo knjigo "Eva gave Maja her [reflexive] book", i.
Antecedents[ edit ] Third-person personal pronouns, and sometimes others, often have an explicit antecedent — a noun phrase which refers to the same person or thing as the pronoun see anaphora.
The antecedent usually precedes the pronoun, either in the same sentence or in a previous sentence although in some cases the pronoun may come before the antecedent. The pronoun may then be said to "replace" or "stand for" the antecedent, and to be used so as to avoid repeating the antecedent.
Mary is the antecedent of she, and Tom of he I loved those bright orange socks. Can you lend them to me? We did 30 miles. Jane and I is the antecedent of we Sometimes pronouns, even third-person ones, are used without specific antecedent, and the referent has to be deduced from the context.
In other cases there may be ambiguity as to what the intended antecedent is: Alan was going to discuss it with Bob. In particular, in a null-subject languageit is permissible for the subject of a verb to be omitted. Information about the grammatical person and possibly gender of the subject may then be provided by the form of the verb.
In such languages it is common for personal pronouns to appear in subject position only if they are needed to resolve ambiguity or if they are stressed. Dummy pronouns[ edit ] In some cases pronouns are used purely because they are required by the rules of syntax, even though they do not refer to anything; they are then called dummy pronouns.
This can be seen in English with the pronoun it in such sentences as it is raining and it is nice to relax.
This is less likely in pro-drop languagessince such pronouns would probably be omitted.Thanks for all your comments, Victoria English Exercises > pronouns exercises > Personal Pronouns and Verb to be: am-is-are Possessives - Adjectives and Pronouns.
Objective personal pronouns are pronouns that act as the object of a sentence. If you are learning English as a second language, remember that the objective personal pronouns are me, you, her, him, it, us, you, and them.
The tables below show a list of pronouns for the following types of pronouns: personal, relative, demonstrative, indefinite, reflexive, intensive, .
It or he and she for animals?.
We mainly use it when speaking about animals. If the animal is a pet, we often use he / him or she / her. The cat’s ill – I’m going to take her to the vet.; Our dog sleeps outside in summer but he comes inside in winter.; Ships are sometimes referred to as she / her.
The ship was designed in France, but she was . Learn Spanish through practice, practice, practice! For over a decade, this has been the go-to workbook for study and mastery of the tricky pronouns and prepositions of the Spanish language. How to use I, me, myself and other personal pronouns.
|Recognize a verb when you see one.||A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun in a sentence. Pronouns are used so that our language is not cumbersome with the same nouns being repeated over and over in a paragraph.|
|Consider word function when you are looking for a verb.||What are you up to? I'm just sitting here with a coffee and the laptop.|
|Pronouns | LearnEnglish - British Council||In others, such as many of the Niger—Congo languagesthere is a system of grammatical gender or noun classesbut the divisions are not based on sex.|
|Frequently bought together||Pronouns are classified into several types which include the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.|
|Grammar Bytes! :: The Verb||Sponsor Ads StyleWriter - the world's largest style and usage checker, makes it easy to write error-free, plain English copy. Creative Writing Software - Best-selling fiction writing software and story-development tools to help you write your next story or novel.|
Knowing when to use I or me, she or her, he or him, we or us, they or them, and myself or yourself can be difficult. It includes easy to understand information on subjects, direct objects and indirect objects and how to conjugate for them.