The development of human being is a continuous process from conception to death. Developmental psychology is concerned with the scientific understanding of age-related changes in experience and behaviour. Although most developmental theories have been specifically concerned with children, the ultimate aim is to provide an account of development throughout the life span.
Mistrust Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen?
Erikson's first psychosocial crisis occurs during the first year or so of life like Freud's oral stage of psychosexual development. The crisis is one of trust vs. During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live.
To resolve these feelings of uncertainty, the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened.
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of hope. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can have hope that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there as a source of support.
Failing to acquire the virtue of hope will lead to the development of fear. For example, if the care has been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust and will not have confidence in the world around them or in their abilities to influence events.
This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Consistent with Erikson's views on the importance of trust, research by Bowlby and Ainsworth has outlined how the quality of the early experience of attachment can affect relationships with others in later life.
Shame and Doubt Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years. The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile, and discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys, etc.
Such skills illustrate the child's growing sense of independence and autonomy. For example, during this stage children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.
Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure. For example, rather than put on a child's clothes a supportive parent should have the patience to allow the child to try until they succeed or ask for assistance.
So, the parents need to encourage the child to become more independent while at the same time protecting the child so that constant failure is avoided. A delicate balance is required from the parent. They must try not to do everything for the child, but if the child fails at a particular task they must not criticize the child for failures and accidents particularly when toilet training.
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world.
If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteemand feel a sense of shame or doubt in their abilities.Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human attheheels.com was first created by the Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (–).
The theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it. Piaget's theory is mainly known as a developmental stage theory.
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson in collaboration with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages that a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood.
All stages are present at birth, but only begin to unfold according to both a natural scheme . "Erikson's theory proposes eight stages of human development.
Each stage is characterized by a different conflict that must be resolved by the person. Each stage is characterized by a different conflict that must be resolved by the person. According to Freud, children’s pleasure-seeking urges (governed by the id) are focused on a different area of the body, called an erogenous zone, at each of the five stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
The study of developmental psychology is essential to understanding how humans learn, mature and adapt. Throughout their lives, humans go through various stages of development.
Developmental psychologists study how people grow, develop and adapt at different life stages. from one stage of development to another may vary from person to person. Stages of Human Development The Four Ashrams In India, the Hindu view of human development conceptualises life as a process of spiritual evolution in four stages or Ashrams - .