It has highlighted the city of Dhaka as the urbanization of the whole country is interlinked with the intense development of the city. The paper is based on data collected through surveys of population censuses and relevant studies. It reveals that the historical process of urban development of Dhaka City presents various trends based on its political development.
Casterline, John Bongaarts eds. Optimism that a rapid fertility transition was imminent, a common view among scholars in the s, was dashed by survey evidence that steadily accumulated through the s.
At this juncture, the future course of fertility in sub-Saharan Africa remains highly uncertain. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the late onset and slow pace of transition. Motivated by these lacunae, the Committee on Population of the US National Academy of Sciences conducted a workshop in bringing together demographers and other social scientists with African research experience to analyze recent fertility trends in sub-Saharan Africa and to assess the prospects for more rapid reproductive change in the region.
The chapters in this volume are based on papers presented at the workshop. In each of these areas, current problems and future policy outcomes are dependent to a greater or lesser degree on the effectiveness of the state. In the short run, it is argued that there is considerable scope for fertility reduction simply by satisfying existing unmet need for contraception through increased access to reproductive health services, as borne out by recent experience in a few African countries.
Many countries in the region may fall short of these conditions. To order a print copy, contact publications popcouncil. Its continuing focus has been on advancing knowledge of the complex relationships between population and social, economic, and environmental change and providing a forum for discussion of related issues of public policy.
A core topic has been fertility transition: The transition, linked to socioeconomic development and improvements in health and longevity, is of major interest to social scientists. Moreover, it is still underway in many countries, and in a few has barely begun.
The future pace of fertility decline in these countries has large implications for the ultimate peak size of the human population and its well-being. Population and Public Policy: This collection of essays on population and public policy marks the occasion and celebrates his scholarly career.
The opening essays in this supplement to Population and Development Review cover population renewal in affluent societies, the management of intergenerational relations throughout history, and the sustainability issues confronting the modern welfare state.
Another set of contributions is concerned with the historical experience with low fertility; the puzzles that ultra-low fertility and natural population decrease pose for theorists of human behavior; the relationship between fertility decline and democratization; and the intractable problems for social policy in Japan created by ultra-low fertility and extreme population aging.
Several essays examine the role of public policy in lowering high fertility; others offer novel insights on natural and human capital and technology. A final group of essays concerns theory and data: Transition has major implications for family and kinship patterns, urbanization, public finance and the welfare state, and intergenerational relations.
The chapters in this supplement explore aspects of the transitional and post-transition landscape from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. They cover both modern industrial societies and emerging economies, and take note of the circumstances of latecomers to the transition process.
Bloom, Wolfgang Lutz eds. Download PDF The essays assembled in this supplement to Population and Development Review address the history of national and international political responses to high fertility and rapid population growth; the demographic dimensions of economic globalization and international factor mobility; policy implications of population-linked changes in the natural and built environment; and problems of managing international migration.
Demographic and Economic Perspectives Linda J. Download PDF In this supplement to Population and Development Review, distinguished social scientists bring a variety of disciplinary perspectives—economic, demographic, epidemiological—to bear on the subject of population aging, looking particularly to likely future trends and their economic consequences.
Among the questions investigated: What can be said about the future course of longevity, given that research on both historical and contemporary populations belies the existence of a biologically fixed maximum for the human life span? How can we unravel the strong positive association between socioeconomic status and health?
What are the effects of increased longevity on the viability of publicly financed retirement and disability programs—and can we assign probabilities to such increases?
The data drawn on come largely from elaborate longitudinal surveys such as the US Health and Retirement Study, the importance of which is thus underlined. Taken together, these chapters provide a portrait of a dynamic, vibrant, innovative program of research that lays the foundation for understanding population aging and the social and economic challenges it brings.
Classical evolutionary theory accounts for survival only through the age of reproduction. A more elaborate theory, integrating biological and demographic perspectives, is required to explain these current trends in longevity and to gauge their future course.
The papers collected in this supplement to Population and Development Review contribute to the development of such a theory.
The authors are leading scientists from demography, evolutionary biology, and field ecology, equipped to draw insights not only from human populations but also from the comparative mortality patterns and environmental circumstances of many other species: The opening chapter presents an overview of the evolutionary and genetic bases of aging and senescence, within and between species, and of the additional role of social evolution.
Subsequent chapters explore the selective forces that shape life span patterns in various species—not least, in fruit flies; present an economic optimization model of the evolution of life span; and analyze the surprising phenomenon of the apparent slowing of the rate of increase in human mortality with age at the oldest ages.
A final chapter attempts a synthesis of the various approaches to explaining and predicting age patterns of mortality. Together they are the subject of an expanding research effort: This supplement to Population and Development Review is the first attempt to systematically address methodological issues in population—environment analysis.
The population—environment systems discussed range from air pollution in urban localities to national-level problems of land cover and food security. The conclusions point toward needed advances in system modeling and interdisciplinary research.Infrastructure is an important variable for judging a county's, region's, or state's development.
Formally defined, infrastructure is "the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of society or enterprise or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function.". A mainspring of economic growth is new technology, and while this technology offers the potential for slowing the dangerously rapid consumption of finite resources, it also entails high risks, including new forms of pollution and the introduction to the planet of new variations of life forms that could change evolutionary pathways.
Population and Economic Development. In developing areas of the world, population growth can seem to have a positive effect on local economies.
But is this growth always a good thing? Additional people provide a workforce necessary to generate goods and services. This paper mainly deals with the economic impacts of globalization on urban environment in Dhaka city. 2. The Economic Fluctuations and Growth Program.
concentrates on the U.S. economy as a whole, considering the aggregate behavior of employment, output, and prices with a general focus on the nature of business cycles.
Jan 01, · Introduction. Energy is the lifeblood of the global economy – a crucial input to nearly all of the goods and services of the modern world. Stable, reasonably priced energy supplies are central to maintaining and improving the living standards of billions of people.