Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol.
The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river systemlargely corresponding to modern-day Iraqnortheastern Syriasoutheastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Agesthe Renaissanceand the Enlightenmentas well as Christian culture.
Alexander the Great In Homeric literature, and right up until the time of Alexander the Greatfor example in the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotuswe see the paradigm of a contrast between the West and East.
Nevertheless, the Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves in the formulation of Aristotle as something between the wild barbarians of most of Europe and the soft, slavish Middle-Easterners.
Ancient Greek sciencephilosophydemocracyarchitectureliteratureand art provided a foundation embraced and built upon by the Roman Empire as it swept up Europe, including the Hellenic World in its conquests in the 1st century BCE.
In the meantime, however, Greece, under Alexander, had become a capital of the East, and part of an empire. The Celts also created some significant literature in the ancient world whenever they were given the opportunity an example being the poet Caecilius Statius.
They also developed a large amount of scientific knowledge themselves, as seen in their Coligny Calendar. It is a mid-sized Augustan provincial temple of the theocratic Imperial cult of the Empire.
The Imperial cult was inseparable from that of Rome's official deities, whose cult was essential to Rome's survival and whose neglect was therefore treasonous.
Traditional cult was a focus of Imperial revivalist legislation under Decius and Diocletian. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. For about five hundred years, the Roman Empire maintained the Greek East and consolidated a Latin West, but an East-West division remained, reflected in many cultural norms of the two areas, including language.
Although Rome, like Greece, was no longer democratic, the idea of democracy remained a part of the education of citizens. In the Roman world one could speak of three main directions: North Celtic tribal states and Parthiansthe East lux ex orienteand finally South, which implied danger, historically via the Punic Wars Quid novi ex Africa?
From the time of Alexander the Great the Hellenistic period Greek civilization came in contact with Jewish civilization.
Christianity would eventually emerge from the syncretism of Hellenic cultureRoman cultureand Second Temple Judaismgradually spreading across the Roman Empire and eclipsing its antecedents and influences.
Roman culture also mixed with CelticGermanic and Slavic cultures, which slowly became integrated into Western culture: Medieval West[ edit ] Two main symbols of the medieval Western civilization on one picture: Justinian I The Medieval West was at its broadest the same as Christendom  including both the "Latin" West, also called "Frankish" during Charlemagne 's reign and the Orthodox Eastern part, where Greek remained the language of empire.
After the fall of Romemuch of Greco-Roman art, literature, science and even technology were all but lost in the western part of the old empire. However, this would become the centre of a new West.
Europe fell into political anarchy, with many warring kingdoms and principalities. Under the Frankish kings, it eventually, and partially, reunified, and the anarchy evolved into feudalism.
Much of the basis of the post-Roman cultural world had been set before the fall of the Empiremainly through the integration and reshaping of Roman ideas through Christian thought.
The Greek and Roman paganism had been completely replaced by Christianity around the 4th and 5th centuries, since it became the official State religion following the baptism of emperor Constantine I.
Orthodox Christian Christianity and the Nicene Creed served as a unifying force in Christian parts of Europe, and in some respects replaced or competed with the secular authorities.
The Jewish Christian tradition out of which it had emerged was all but extinguished, and antisemitism became increasingly entrenched or even integral to Christendom.
The Church founded many cathedralsuniversitiesmonasteries and seminariessome of which continue to exist today. Medieval Christianity created the first modern universities. Historian Paul Legutko of Stanford University said the Catholic Church is "at the center of the development of the values, ideas, science, laws, and institutions which constitute what we call Western civilization.
The philosophy and science of Classical Greece was largely forgotten in Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, other than in isolated monastic enclaves notably in Ireland, which had become Christian but was never conquered by Rome. Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis Roman civil law code was preserved in the East and Constantinople maintained trade and intermittent political control over outposts such as Venice in the West for centuries.
Classical Greek learning was also subsumed, preserved and elaborated in the rising Eastern world, which gradually supplanted Roman-Byzantine control as a dominant cultural-political force. Thus, much of the learning of classical antiquity was slowly reintroduced to European civilization in the centuries following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
The rediscovery of the Justinian Code in Western Europe early in the 10th century rekindled a passion for the discipline of law, which crossed many of the re-forming boundaries between East and West.
In the Catholic or Frankish west, Roman law became the foundation on which all legal concepts and systems were based. Its influence is found in all Western legal systems, although in different manners and to different extents. The study of canon lawthe legal system of the Catholic Church, fused with that of Roman law to form the basis of the refounding of Western legal scholarship.
During the Reformation and Enlightenment, the ideas of civil rightsequality before the lawprocedural justiceand democracy as the ideal form of society began to be institutionalized as principles forming the basis of modern Western culture, particularly in Protestant regions.
Thomas Aquinasa Catholic philosopher of the Middle Agesrevived and developed natural law from ancient Greek philosophy. In the 14th century, starting from Italy and then spreading throughout Europe,  there was a massive artistic, architectural, scientific and philosophical revival, as a result of the Christian revival of Greek philosophy, and the long Christian medieval tradition that established the use of reason as one of the most important of human activities.
In the following century, this process was further enhanced by an exodus of Greek Christian priests and scholars to Italian cities such as Venice after the end of the Byzantine Empire with the fall of Constantinople.Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality.
Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality, violence, ideology, and other potential causes. In Western societies, gender power is held by White, highly educated, middle-class, able-bodied heterosexual men whose gender represents hegemonic masculinity – the ideal to which other masculinities must interact with, conform to, and attheheels.comnic .
Selected links on Gender Based Violence. In , the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women offered the first official definition of the term “Gender-based Violence”: “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary.
Elaine Fantham, et. al., "Women in the Classical World," Oxford University Press, New York NY ()."Written by leading experts in the fields of ancient history and art history, women's studies, and Greek and Roman literature, the book's chronological arrangement allows the changing roles of women to unfold over a thousand year period, beginning in the eighth century B.C.E.
Essay on Gender Roles in Society Words | 5 Pages. Gender Roles in Society Gender role is a commonly discussed subject in society. Gender role simply defined is a person's inner sense of how a male or female should feel and behave. This essay on gender roles and stereotypes was written in defense of women.
Learn why many of the preconceived beliefs society has about women are false.4/5(12).