Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time.
Find same-sex sexual relations appealing 4.
Data from Laumann, E. The social organization of sexuality. University of Chicago Press. These are all a lot of numbers, but demographer Gary J. Gates Gates, G.
How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? The overall picture from these estimates is clear: Self-identified LGBT people comprise only a small percentage of the US population, but they amount to about 9 million adults and undoubtedly a significant number of adolescents.
In addition, the total number of people who, regardless of their sexual orientation, have had a same-sex experience is probably at least 19 million, and the number who have had same-sex attraction is probably at least 25 million.
This historical record is clear: Homosexuality has existed since ancient times and in some societies has been rather common or at least fully accepted as a normal form of sexual expression.
In the great city of Athens in ancient Greece, male homosexuality to be more precise, sexual relations between a man and a teenaged boy and, less often, between a man and a man was not only approved but even encouraged. According to classical scholar K. Though it has often been assumed that the love of males was a fashion confined to a small intellectual elite during the age of Plato, in fact it was pervasive throughout all levels of Greek society and held an honored place in Greek culture for more than a thousand years, that is, from before B.
Male homosexuality in ancient Rome was also common and accepted as normal sexuality, but it took a different form from than in ancient Greece. Ancient Romans disapproved of sexual relations between a man and a freeborn male youth, but they approved of relations between a slave master and his youthful male slave.
Sexual activity of this type was common. As Cromptonp. Influenced by several passages in the Bible that condemn homosexuality, Europeans considered homosexuality a sin, and their governments outlawed same-sex relations. If discovered, male homosexuals or any men suspected of homosexuality were vulnerable to execution for the next fourteen centuries, and many did lose their lives.
During the Middle Ages, gay men and lesbians were stoned, burned at the stake, hanged, or beheaded, and otherwise abused and mistreated. In contrast to the European treatment of gay men and lesbians, China and Japan from ancient times onward viewed homosexuality much more positively in what Cromptonp.
In China, both male and female homosexuality were seen as normal and even healthy sexual outlets. Because Confucianism, the major Chinese religion when the Common Era began, considered women inferior, it considered male friendships very important and thus may have unwittingly promoted same-sex relations among men.
Various artistic and written records indicate that male homosexuality was fairly common in China over the centuries, although the exact numbers can never be known. When China began trading and otherwise communicating with Europe during the Ming dynasty, its tolerance for homosexuality shocked and disgusted Catholic missionaries and other Europeans.
Some European clergy and scientists even blamed earthquakes and other natural disasters in China on this tolerance.families and disclosed their sexual orientation were victimized by their families more often than were youth who had not disclosed (D’Augelli et al.
). A summary of sociological theories regarding sexual orientation and inequality is pre-.
In this regard, sexual orientation is a significant source of social inequality, just as race/ethnicity, gender, and social class are sources of social inequality.
We examine manifestations of inequality based on sexual orientation in this section. Perhaps the most notable published paper in this area appeared in the American Sociological. Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality. Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality, violence, ideology, and other potential causes.
this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.) Interpreting the biological correlates of sexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, Recommended Readings. Sociology Quiz 1 study guide by quizlette includes 29 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more.
Which country was the first country to establish constitutional ban against discrimination based on sexual orientation? For her final research paper, she wants to use a functionalist perspective to study the phenomenon of.
The Economic Consequences of Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity carries significant economic costs. “Sexual Orientation Discrimination in Hiring,” Working Paper, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Perhaps the most notable published paper in this area appeared in the American An analogous concept exists in the study of sexual orientation and inequality.
The inequality arising from sexual orientation stems from long-standing and deep-rooted prejudice against nonheterosexual attraction and behavior and against the many people whose.