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Proteomic and metagenomic insights into prehistoric Spanish Levantine Rock Art.
The Iberian Mediterranean Basin is home to one of the largest groups of prehistoric rock art sites in Europe. Despite the cultural relevance of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art, pigment composition remains partially unknown, and the Despite the cultural relevance of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art, pigment composition remains partially unknown, and the nature of the binders used for painting has yet to be disclosed.
In this work, we present the first omic analysis applied to one of the flagship Levantine rock art sites: We used high-throughput sequencing to provide the first description of the bacterial communities colonizing the rock art patina, which proved to be dominated by Firmicutes species and might have a protective effect on the paintings.
Proteomic analysis was also performed on rock art microsamples in order to determine the organic binders present in Levantine prehistoric rock art pigments. This information could shed light on the controversial dating of this UNESCO Cultural Heritage, and contribute to defining the chrono-cultural framework of the societies responsible for these paintings.
Spanish Levantine rock art is a unique pictorial expression in Prehistoric Europe due to the naturalism of depictions, the narrative component of scenes, and the vast distribution of rock-art shelters in the Iberian Mediterranean basin Fig.
Despite the historical and aesthetic value of Levantine rock art and its unprecedented distribution, its chrono-cultural framework is still unclear, due to the difficulties in radiocarbon dating of pigments 1.
Consequently, disparate chronological hypotheses have been proposed and, recently, new arguments have fuelled the debate, resulting in two alternative hypotheses on the chrono-cultural framework for Levantine rock art: BC 2,3 while the other argues a Mesolithic affiliation, based mainly on the thematic content of scenes 4,5since big game hunting is one of the most frequent activities portrayed in the Levantine graphic tradition.
Most archaeological research has focused on the characterization of raw materials, rather than the technical processes involved in executing the paintings. Recently, we developed a new protocol including archaeobotanical microanalysis and experimental archaeology that enabled us to detect binders used to prepare Levantine charcoal pigments; however, we were unsuccessful in identifying them physico-chemically by in situ energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry EDXRF and Raman spectroscopy 6.
In order to improve the characterization of Levantine pigment composition we also need a better understanding of the microbial communities associated to the rock art patina to assess their putative role in the preservation of the raw materials and binders used.
Microbial activity is central to rock-art preservation and degradation 7—9. In particular, microorganisms are known to alter the composition of the mineral patina covering rock art paintings. For instance, the production of oxalic acid and other organic acids as a consequence of microbial metabolism is linked with the reinforcement of the patina, whereas microbial solubilisation of carbonates results in the.Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics (GPB) is the official journal of Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Genetics Society of China.
The goals of GPB are to disseminate new frontiers in the field of omics and bioinformatics, to publish high-quality discoveries in a fast-pace. Journal of Proteomics is aimed at protein scientists and analytical chemists in the field of proteomics, biomarker discovery, protein analytics, plant proteomics, microbial and animal proteomics, human studies, tissue imaging by mass spectrometry, non-conventional and non-model organism proteomics, and protein bioinformatics.
The journal. Home» Research» Proteomics & Protein Research Proteomics & Protein Research News on protein analysis, clinical proteomics, biomarkers in genetics, genomics, and molecular diagnostics. The mission of the NCI’s Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is to improve prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer by enhancing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer, advance proteome and .
Aug 14, · In this paper, we attempt to discuss the development of current proteomic technologies and the application of proteomics to the field of pancreatic cancer research. This will explore the potential perspective in revealing pathogenesis, making the diagnosis earlier and treatment.
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