How to write a psychology report results section

In each case, we edited the original conclusion to provide a better citable statement.

How to write a psychology report results section

The news and business periodicals are peppered with stories of executives flying in private jets to ask for government handouts, taking large bonuses from employers who took billions in bailout money, and instigating organization-wide pay cuts and benefit rollbacks while keeping themselves immune from such changes.

Many accounts describe Cassano as a quintessential arrogant leader. Former coworkers report that in stark contrast to his predecessors, Cassano had penchants for yelling, cursing, bad-mouthing others, and belittling colleagues, as well as little tolerance for opposing viewpoints.

how to write a psychology report results section

He has also been described as having had an obsession with profits, particularly as they related to the lucrative credit-default swap contracts that eventually brought the entire company down Dennis, ; Taibbi, However, despite the fact that it was the practices he sanctioned that led AIG to be regarded as one of the most notable examples of excess associated with Wall Street, Cassano remains unapologetic about his role and blames others for the crisis Nasiripour, Anecdotal evidence suggests that interactions with arrogant individuals can be uncomfortable and that this effect is amplified when the arrogant individuals occupy positions of authority in organizations.

Many jobs require continuous interaction between employees and their supervisors, effectively limiting the ability to avoid abuse by an arrogant boss. Managers typically have power over work assignments, promotion opportunities, and performance reviews.

This can place subordinates of arrogant managers between a proverbial rock and hard place. The effects of arrogance are not limited to the victims of such behaviors.

Rather, arrogance can cause problems for the arrogant leader as well. Based on the coverage in the popular press, it appears that arrogance is related to numerous undesirable organizational outcomes. This paper clarifies current theoretical conceptualizations of arrogance, reviews recent research investigating arrogance in the workplace, and provides practical recommendations for dealing with arrogant employees.

The persona arrogant individuals attempt to project is one of omnipotence and invincibility. Through actions associated with this inflated sense of entitlement and superiority, arrogant employees often impede effective organizational functioning Johnson et al.

For example, having an exaggerated sense of superiority reduces feedback-seeking behaviors and causes arrogant managers to discount diagnostic information in their work environment.

Arrogant managers are therefore more likely to pursue failing courses of action that could otherwise have been prevented.

How to study and write for Psychology

Arrogant behavior can be an especially challenging problem to deal with due to the fact that arrogant individuals consider their own behavior acceptable and thus do not monitor their own actions when interacting with others. Although arrogance is conceptually related to personality characteristics like narcissism, hubris, and confidence, there are important distinctions that set arrogance apart from these other traits.

Narcissism or self-love involves fantasies of self-grandeur and excessive self-admiration that can occur in the absence of others. Arrogance, on the other hand, is manifested in interpersonal contexts by disparaging others.

Similarly, hubris is also self-focused and lacks the interpersonal nature of arrogance. The distinction between arrogance and confidence is twofold.

It first boils down to whether the opinion the individual claims to hold is based in reality and second to how well espoused beliefs represent actual beliefs. Psychology (5th Edition) (): Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White: Books

Despite the apparent confidence of those engaging in arrogant behavior, research suggests that it is actually a defensive display occurring partially in response to low self-confidence Johnson et al. Thus, performance claims by confident individuals are based in reality, but those of arrogant individuals are not.

As will be discussed, it is noteworthy that arrogant behavior is typically not associated with actual superior performance or knowledge. Rather, it seems to be defensive compensation for shortcomings Bauer et al. In the following section we will elaborate on the development and validation of the Workplace Arrogance Scales WARSa measure that has allowed for more efficient and reliable examination of arrogance in the workplace.

Thanks in part to this measure, empirical evidence regarding the effects of workplace arrogance has begun to emerge. As will be discussed, recent studies utilizing this measure indicate that workplace arrogance predicts important organizational outcomes.

Research on Arrogance Russ Johnson, Stan Silverman, and colleagues dedicated 4 years of research to answering important questions about the nature and consequences of arrogant behavior in the workplace Bauer et al. The product of this research program was the Workplace Arrogance Scale WARSas well as considerable increases in our understanding of the effects of workplace arrogance.

During these sessions, employees were asked to think about someone at work who behaved arrogantly and to describe the behaviors of that person. Using the specific behavioral examples garnered from these queries, items reflecting arrogant behaviors were written.

The item pool was then refined via an iterative process whereby subject-matter experts reviewed and edited the items until their meaning was clear and wording was satisfactory.

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After this, the survey was administered to a new group of employees in order to examine the validity and refine the scale Johnson et al. The measure holds its factor structure across part- and full-time employees, across subordinates and managers, and across self- and other ratings.Major in Neuroscience and Behavior.

Please read Guidelines for all Psychology Majors, Concentrators, and Interdepartmental Majors above. The department cosponsors an interdepartmental major in neuroscience and behavior with . The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.

Research & writing for assignments. University assignments are a big challenge, but we can guide you. Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. A guide to writing conclusions in abstracts for Addiction.

Addiction publishes abstracts that are clear, accurate and succinct. Each abstract conclusion must provide the .

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A listing of psychological research being conducted online. Table of Contents Cognition Consumer Psychology Cyber Psychology Developmental. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ® (JCCP) publishes original contributions on the following topics.

the development, validity, and use of techniques of diagnosis and treatment of disordered behavior; studies of a variety of populations that have clinical interest, including but not limited to medical patients, ethnic minorities, .

Psychology | - When you hit the books - and they hit back.