Portrayal of women in literature Negative ideas of women? The predominance of male authors Until comparatively recently, the majority of published writers were men and the portrayal of women in literature was inevitably one-sided.
Print Building egalitarian societies is one of the priorities of modern democratic states. Mass media play a unique and important role in the shaping of a society where men and women enjoy equal rights.
This is reached through several means, including psychological, social, economic, philosophical, awareness of human rights, political and so on. The role of media is important for being successful in all the mentioned spheres. The media can promote and speed up the reforms in progress, or, on the contrary, it can hamper their implementation.
A number of international conferences and conventions have voiced and publicized the need to break public stereotypes through change in the media policy. Mass media, however, continue to reproduce discriminatory stereotypes about women and portray them in sexist ways.
As a rule, women are portrayed in a narrow range of characters in mass media. If we were to divide mass media into two categories, such as fictional and news-reporting, then in the former, women are often associated with the household or sex-objects, and in the latter category, they lack roles.
Only in a limited number of news programs do women appear as main actors or experts. One of the reasons for this situation is the smaller number of women in these spheres, but even the existing number of women are underrepresented compared to their male counterparts.
In advertising and magazines, women are usually portrayed as young, slim and with beauty that meets the accepted standards. Women with this kind of appearance are often associated with sex objects.
Why do social scientists attribute importance to study of images and stereotypes of women in media? Femininity, as well as masculinity, are not biological, but rather, cultural constructs. Representations and manifestations of femininity differ across cultures, time and societies.
Femininity is culturally and socially constructed by the family, education, the public, and to a larger extent, the media. In the initial stage of its history, media were managed exclusively by men. In other words, men were creating media images of men and women they wished to see in reality.
Media images of women have become a subject of criticism in Feminist Media Studies since s, when Betty Friedan in her book entitled The Feminine Mystique revealed and criticized the image of an ideal woman in post-war America.
Friedan calls this image "the happy housewife heroine. All kind of entertainment programs portray women in a dual image. On one hand, they are decorative objects. Yet, at the same time, they are passive individuals in the household and in marriage who are dependent on men for financial, emotional and physical support.
When the TV screen or a commercial poster displays only slender long legs, prominent breasts or thighs, it is difficult to perceive that body holistically and as possessing personality.
In addition, the portrayed female characters are largely influenced by the beauty myth. They have flawless skin, slender stature and embody all components of beauty as perceived in society. As a result of globalization this myth is increasingly generalized across cultures and societies.
The standards of beauty as portrayed in media, however, are impossible to achieve, since the models have been transformed into these images through a number of technical means. This first large-scale study illustrated that in all areas of media women were still facing problems in achieving equality.
The survey conducted in 59 countries, revealed that women make up only Interestingly, Uganda and Russia are among the top countries where men and women almost equally appear in leading positions. Unfortunately, this has not changed the images of women in media.
Not only should women be represented in top management and have major impact on the decision-making process, but they should also undergo professional training. Otherwise, the female journalists and media executives, who have been educated with the media rules of patriarchal system, also often reproduces the sexist images of women.
With this in mind, a number of international organizations have concluded conventions and treaties with states through which they support the training of media employees by giving them the necessary tools and know-how to develop gender-sensitive policies.
Despite the tremendous change that has taken place in the sphere of media thanks to feminist criticism, the contemporary media are nowhere close to the standards they claim. Even in US and Europe, where feminist ideas are widely spread, and women have legally reached equal rights with men, media continue to have discriminatory attitudes towards women and rely on male worldview when portraying women.Shift!in!Portrayal!of!Black!Women!in!America!!!!!
3!! How the Portrayal of Black Women has shifted from Slavery times to Blaxploitation films in American Society Black Americans have endured numerous hardships since their involuntary migration and subsequent enslavement from Africa to America. Unfortunately, this has not changed the images of women in media.
Social scientists and their research results illustrate that women’s involvement in media work is not sufficient for bringing about change in how women are portrayed in media.
While women have made significant strides in the past decades, the culture at large continues to place a great emphasis on how women look. These beauty standards, largely proliferated through the media, have drastic impacts on young women and their body images.
Maybe that's because only 7 percent of directors, 13 percent of writers and 20 percent of producers are women. Here's what this all adds up to: There is simply no equality when it comes to the portrayal of women in the media -- whether it's on the news pages, in advertisements, on the airwaves or on the Big Screen.
O ne of Scotland Yard's most senior female officers has defended the portrayal of women in The Bodyguard, insisting it is accurate and does not damage the fight for gender equality. The exploitation of women in mass media is the use or portrayal of women in mass media (such as television, film and advertising) to increase the appeal of media or a product to the detriment of, or without regard to, the interests of the women portrayed, or women in general.