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Paradox[ edit ] Prior to the gene-centered view of evolutioneusociality was seen as an apparent evolutionary paradox: In On the Origin of SpeciesDarwin referred to the existence of sterile castes as the "one special difficulty, which at first appeared to me insuperable, and actually fatal to my theory".
Hamilton quantified a century later with his inclusive fitness theory. After the gene-centered view of evolution was developed in the mid s, non-reproductive individuals were seen as an extended phenotype of the genes, which are the primary beneficiaries of natural selection.
Individuals are selected to help their relatives when the cost of helping is less than the benefit gained by their relative multiplied by the fraction of genes that they share, i. Under inclusive fitness theory, the necessary conditions for eusociality to evolve are more easily fulfilled by haplodiploid species because of their unusual relatedness structure.
In haplodiploid species, females develop from fertilized eggs and males develop from unfertilized eggs. This mechanism of sex determination gives rise to what W. Hamilton first termed "supersisters" which are more related to their sisters than they would be to their own offspring.
This unusual situation, where females may have greater fitness when they help rear siblings rather than producing offspring, is often invoked to explain the multiple independent evolutions of eusociality arising at least nine separate times within the haplodiploid group Hymenoptera.
The association between haplodiploidy and eusociality is below statistical significance. The relevant factors primarily involve the distribution of food and predators.
Increased parasitism and predation rates are the primary ecological drivers of social organization. Group living affords colony members defense against enemies, specifically predators, parasites, and competitors, and allows them to gain advantage from superior foraging methods.
Mole rats and ants live in underground burrows; wasps, bees, and some termites build above-ground hives; thrips and aphids inhabit galls neoplastic outgrowths induced on plants; ambrosia beetles and some termites nest together in dead wood; and snapping shrimp inhabit crevices in marine sponges.
For many species the habitat outside the nest is often extremely arid or barren, creating such a high cost to dispersal that the chance to take over the colony following parental death is greater than the chance of dispersing to form a new colony.
Defense of such fortresses from both predators and competitors often favors the evolution of non-reproductive soldier castes, while the high costs of nest construction and expansion favor non-reproductive worker castes. The importance of ecology is supported by evidence such as experimentally induced reproductive division of labor, for example when normally solitary queens are forced together.
Climate also appears to be a selective agent driving social complexity; across bee lineages and Hymenoptera in general, higher forms of sociality are more likely to occur in tropical than temperate environments.
Social behavior in facultative social bees is often reliably predicted by ecological conditions, and switches in behavioral type have been experimentally induced by translocating offspring of solitary or social populations to warm and cool climates.
In another species of sweat bees, L. Group selection Once pre-adaptations such as group formation, nest building, high cost of dispersal, and morphological variation are present, between-group competition has been cited as a quintessential force in the transition to advanced eusociality.
Because the hallmarks of eusociality will produce an extremely altruistic society, such groups will out-reproduce their less cooperative competitors, eventually eliminating all non-eusocial groups from a species.Free e-newsletter Subscribe to our e-newsletter to receive all the latest early childhood news.
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Describe features of inclusive teaching and learning Explain why it is important to create an inclusive teaching and learning environment place after lunch to help to keep the student motivated. [DH7] Dale’s () cone of learning . The Challenge. Meetings are supposed to improve creativity and productivity—but they do the opposite when they’re excessive, badly scheduled, poorly run, or all three. Explain how to establish and maintain a safe and supportive learning environment Explain how to establish ground rules with learner’s to promote respect for each other. Explain how to promote appropriate behaviour and respect for others.
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The World Energy Outlook is an annual report that details global energy trends and what possible impact they will have on supply and demand, carbon emissions, air pollution and energy access. 2. Post Student Work. When displays of essays, poems, projects, and exams dominate the walls, there is student ownership of the room.
When they look around and see their own writing and thinking, they certainly experience a higher level of comfort than if they see store-bought posters. 3 Explain How Multiple Conditions And Or Disabilities May Impact On Individuals Opportunity To Participate In A Range Of Activities.
Support individuals with multiple conditions and/or disabilities Describe possible multiple conditions and/or disabilities that individuals may have. Patients with multiple conditions and/or disabilities have two or more disabling conditions that affect. 10 Characteristics Of A Highly Effective Learning Environment.
by Terry Heick. 10 Characteristics Of A Highly Effective Learning Environment. Effective Learning Environments Our Best. You might also like More from author. Learning. Blended Learning Resources For Teachers.
Explain How You Would Establish And Maintain An Inclusive Learning Environment * Explain how to establish and maintain a safe and supportive learning environment * Explain how to promote appropriate behaviour and respect for others.
* Explain how to establish ground rules with learners to promote respect for others.
“Good classroom management depends a lot on how you.