What follows is a short list of very important conflicts with a brief description of each. Note that most of these conflicts could be traced essentially to disagreements over land and trade, but many also had their roots in Native American politics.
In addition, the powerful Iroquois Confederacy began exerting its influence on the region. When Europeans first explored western Virginia in the late s, they discovered few Native Americans.
Historian Otis Rice suggests this absence was due to the Five Nations, "which sought domination of the Ohio Valley as part of their effort to control the fur trade with the Dutch, and later the British.
The Confederacy controlled the valley but other tribes were permitted to settle there. For example, a Shawnee village existed at present-day Point Pleasant and a Delaware village flourished at Bulltown in present-day Braxton County well into the s.
InEnglish colonists landed at Jamestown, Virginia. Based on various explorations, the British and French laid claim to the territory comprising present-day West Virginia and Native Americans were forced west.
Many of the tribes were destroyed by constant warfare and catastrophic diseases. At the same time, trade with the Europeans proved a strong attraction, enabling the Indians to acquire valuable new products, such as guns, steel hatchets, cloth, and kettles. The fur trade in particular made many tribes powerful and more aggressive.
The Indian nations successfully played one European power against another. For instance, the British formed an alliance with the Iroquois Confederacy to cut the French out of the lucrative fur trade. However, the Six Nations also negotiated treaties and traded with the French.
Treaties As part of their negotiations, the British secured three treaties which opened the western Virginia frontier to European settlement: At Lancaster, Virginia negotiators convinced the Six Nations to surrender their land to the "setting sun," which the Confederacy interpreted as the crest of the Alleghenies and the British interpreted as all of western Virginia.
Indians fought among themselves over hunting rights to the territory but the Native American idea of "right" to the land was very different from the legalistic and individual nature of European ownership. John Alexander Williams describes this in his book, West Virginia: A History for Beginners: The Indians had no concept of "private property," as applied to the land.
Only among the Delawares was it customary for families, during certain times of the year, to be assigned specific hunting territories.
Apparently this was an unusual practice, not found among other Indians. Certainly, the idea of an individual having exclusive use of a particular piece of land was completely strange to Native Americans.
The Indians practiced communal land ownership.
That is, the entire community owned the land upon which it lived. English troops under a young commander, George Washington, were overwhelmed by the French at Fort Necessity, beginning a lengthy war for control of the American colonies.
While the English had made it clear they intended to settle the frontier, the French were more interested in trade. This influenced the Delaware and Shawnee to side with the French.
Although the Six Nations officially remained neutral, many in the Iroquois Confederacy also allied with the French. The following year, French troops lost Quebec, crippling their military strength. The loss of French military support temporarily calmed tensions between Native Americans and settlers in western Virginia.
In the summer ofPontiac, an Ottawa chief led raids on key British forts.
Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua, or Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements in present-day Greenbrier County. However, many land speculators such as George Washington violated the proclamation by claiming vast acreage in western Virginia.
The next five years were relatively peaceful on the frontier. With the frontier again open, settlers flooded into western Virginia and the speculators made small fortunes in rent on the lands they had acquired. · The Apache Wars were a series of armed conflicts between the United States Army and various Apache nations fought in the southwest between and , though minor hostilities continued until as late as attheheels.com Conflict - The Native Americans and European Settlers.
Read the information on the following web site pages, and the information below, to help you answer the following questions. Quote and refer to the sources in your attheheels.com New Netherland attracted immigrant settlers from all over Europe.
Eventually the England took over this colony and made it an English colony run by the English government. Pennsylvania was established by William Penn as a Quaker attheheels.com://attheheels.com One further notorious clash between Native Americans and settlers in the colonial period occurred on February 29, , during a time when many tribes had sided with the French in the fight between French and English over the domination of northern New attheheels.com&Blacks/Hannah.
· The settlers in New England thought Christianity was the one true faith, and that all people should believe in it.
They soon learned that the Indians were satisfied with their own spiritual attheheels.com A SERIES OF FASCINATING images documenting some of the hostilities between Native Americans and white settlers in North America over a year period have resurfaced today, on the th anniversary of the last conflict between Native American tribes and American attheheels.com://attheheels.com