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Rolling robots[ edit ] Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya For simplicity, most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks.
Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts, as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four-wheeled robot would not be able to.
Two-wheeled balancing robots[ edit ] Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the same direction, to counterbalance the fall at hundreds of times per second, based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum.
Self-balancing unicycle A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a two-wheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel.
Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently, such as Carnegie Mellon University 's " Ballbot " that is the approximate height and width of a person, and Tohoku Gakuin University 's "BallIP".
Spherical robot Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball, either by spinning a weight inside the ball,   or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere. Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels, therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots, where the robot must drive on very rough terrain.
However, they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however, none have Aqua statistics coursework been made which are as robust as a human. Typically, robots on two legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs.
None can walk over rocky, uneven terrain. Some of the methods which have been tried are: The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces the combination of Earth 's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walkingexactly opposed by the floor reaction force the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot.
In this way, the two forces cancel out, leaving no moment force causing the robot to rotate and fall over. However, it still requires a smooth surface to walk on. Initially, a robot with only one leg, and a very small foot could stay upright simply by hopping.
The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side, it would jump slightly in that direction, in order to catch itself. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults.
Passive dynamics Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope, using only gravity to propel themselves.
Using this technique, a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. Left one has 64 motors with 2 degrees of freedom per segmentthe right one A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot, with two humans to manage it.
The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight, and even landing. They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot on board, and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions.
Some can even fire on targets under command. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically, without the need for a command from a human. Other flying robots include cruise missilesthe Entomopter, and the Epson micro helicopter robot. Robots such as the Air Penguin, Air Ray, and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies, propelled by paddles, and guided by sonar.
Snaking[ edit ] Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings. It has four legs, with unpowered wheels, which can either step or roll.
One approach mimics the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions; adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. An example of this is Capuchin,  built by Dr.
Ruixiang Zhang at Stanford University, California. Another approach uses the specialized toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoeswhich can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass.
Examples of this approach include Wallbot  and Stickybot. Li, the gecko robot could rapidly climb up and down a variety of building walls, navigate through ground and wall fissures, and walk upside-down on the ceiling. It was also able to adapt to the surfaces of smooth glass, rough, sticky or dusty walls as well as various types of metallic materials.
It could also identify and circumvent obstacles automatically. Its flexibility and speed were comparable to a natural gecko. A third approach is to mimic the motion of a snake climbing a pole.For those interested in online options, see our ranking of best cheap online degrees.. The 25 Top Affordable Colleges Ranking Methodology Selection Criteria.
To start, we created a list of all the public and private (non-profit), four-year colleges and universities in the U.S. that offer primarily bachelor’s degrees or above. Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, and attheheels.comcs deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
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