Higher blood pressure and irregular heart beat. Increased susceptibility to disease. Effects with Other Drugs a.
Physiological Effects of Alcohol, Drugs, and Tobacco on Women Overview Based on human and animal studies, women are more sensitive to the consumption and long-term effects of alcohol and drugs than men.
From absorption to metabolic processes, women display more difficulty in physically managing the consequences of use. In general, with higher levels of alcohol and drugs in the system for longer periods of time, women are also more susceptible to alcohol- and drug-related diseases and organ damage.
This chapter provides an overview of the physiological impact of alcohol and drugs on women, with particular emphasis on the significant physiological differences and consequences of substance use in women. It begins with a general exploration of how gender differences affect the way alcohol and drugs are metabolized in the body and then highlights several biopsychosocial and cultural factors that can influence health issues associated with drugs and alcohol.
The chapter goes on to explore the physiological effects of alcohol, drugs both licit and illicitand tobacco on the female body. Counselors can use the information presented in this chapter to educate their female clients about the negative effects substances can have on their physical health.
A sample patient lecture is included that highlights the physiological effects of heavy alcohol use. Physiological Effects and Consequences of Substance Abuse in Women Alcohol and drugs can take a heavy toll on the human body.
Yet women have different physical responses to substances and greater susceptibility to health-related issues. Women differ from men in the severity of the problems that develop from use of alcohol and drugs and in the amount of time between initial use and the development of physiological problems Greenfield ; Mucha et al.
For example, a consequence of excessive alcohol use is liver damage such as cirrhosis that often begins earlier in women consuming less alcohol over a shorter period of time. By and large, women who have substance use disorders have poorer quality of life than men on health-related issues.
In addition, women who abuse substances have physiological consequences, health issues, and medical needs related to gynecology Peters et al. Women sometimes use illicit drugs and alcohol as medication for cramping, body aches, and other discomforts associated with menstruation Stevens and Estrada On the other hand, women who use heroin and methadone can experience amenorrhea absence of menstrual periods; Abs et al.
Subsequently, they are unaware that they are pregnant. Limitations of Current Research on Gender Differences in Metabolism In general, research on the unique physiological effects of alcohol and drugs in women is limited and sometimes inconclusive.
Although the differences in the way women and men metabolize alcohol have been studied in some depth, research on differences in metabolism of illicit drugs is limited.
For many years, much of the research on metabolism of substances either used male subjects exclusively or did not report on gender differences.
Available research is typically based on small sample sizes and has not been replicated. Race and ethnic background can affect metabolism and the psychological effects of alcohol and illicit drugs, as can the psychopharmaceuticals sometimes used in treatment Rouse et al.
Similar to men, few women abuse only one substance.
Polysubstance use complicates the ability to study and understand the physiological effects of specific drugs on women, while increasing the risk associated with synergistic effects when substances are combined. Factors of Influence Ethnicity and Culture The level of acculturation and cultural roles and expectations play a significant role in substance use patterns among women of color Caetano et al.
The prevalence of substance abuse among ethnic women typically coincides with higher levels of acculturation in the United States, thus leading to greater health issues.
These health disparities arise from many sources, including difficulty in accessing affordable health care, delays in seeking treatment, limited socioeconomic resources, racism, and discrimination Gee ; Mays et al. In addition, mistrust of health care providers is a significant barrier to receiving appropriate screening, preventive care, timely interventions, and adequate treatment Alegria et al.
More recent studies have explored the role of gender in perceived discrimination and health, and some studies have noted differences in the type of stressors, reactions, and health consequences between men and women Finch et al.
Likewise, they are less likely to have health insurance and to use preventive screenings, including mammograms and pelvic examinations. With less utilization of routine screenings, lesbians and bisexual women may not be afforded the benefit of early detection across disorders, including substance use disorders, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease.
More than ethnicity, socioeconomic status heavily influences the health risks associated with substance abuse. Research suggests that when the socioeconomic conditions of ethnically diverse populations are similar to those of the White population, consequences of substance use appear comparable Jones-Webb et al.
Among women, alcohol and drug-related morbidity and mortality are disproportionately higher in individuals of lower socioeconomic status, which is associated with insufficient healthcare services, difficulties in accessing treatment, lack of appropriate nutrition, and inadequate prenatal care.
Subsequently, impoverished women who abuse substances often experience greater health consequences and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, homelessness is associated with higher mortality rates for all life-threatening disorders, including greater risks for infectious diseases.
Developmental Issues and Aging Although little is known regarding the effect of alcohol and drugs on development across the lifespan, there is some evidence in alcohol-related research that there are different vulnerabilities at different ages for women.Page 2 NAMSDL News - Subject Matter Analysis September 15, it is illegal to drive a motor vehicle while: “under the influence of any other drug [besides alcohol] or combination of other drugs to a degree which impairs the person’s ability to drive safely”; or.
A pharmacological classification of drugs of abuse Sections ABSTRACT Introduction (alcohol) Impairment in memory and learning (cannabis) Distortion of sensory perceptions (hallucinogens, cannabis) Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (United Nations publication, Sales No.
. driving an automobile after the consumption of drugs or medications other than alcohol that interfere regulation, automobile accident(s), driver impairment, prescription drugs, chronic opioid analgesic therapy, driving under the influence Pain Physician ; ESES Focused Review A Framework for “Driving Under the Influence of.
a questionable topic after the execution of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, (NDPS Act) , interdicting sale and possession of marijuana all over India. by arguments related to alcohol and tobacco regulation and the ineffectiveness of the NDPS Consumption of marijuana and other cannabis spinoffs such as bhang date.
Mar 15, · The prevalence of alcohol and other drugs detected in drivers who died within 1 hour of a crash was calculated by calendar year, driver characteristics, and drug class.
Blood alcohol concentration was measured in grams per deciliter, and a blood alcohol concentration of g/dL or greater was considered alcohol positive. However, certain psychoactive drugs, like alcohol, tobacco, and drugs listed in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs are subject to criminal laws.
The Controlled Substances Act of regulates the recreational drugs outlined in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. .